Export Controls: Pathogens and Toxins

Pathogens and Toxins

Department of Commerce dual-use export control-listed pathogens and toxins are listed below. These pathogens and toxins are found on the Commerce Control List (CCL) in Category 1 at ECCNs 1C351 through 1C360. Please note that export controls also apply to genetic elements and genetically modified organisms that contain DNA associated with the pathogenicity of these biological materials. Severe civil and/or criminal penalties apply to international shipments without an export license of ANY export controlled pathogen or genetic material containing the controlled DNA.

You will need to contact Stanford's Export Control Office if your research requires an export controlled pathogen or genetic material containing the controlled DNA to be sent outside of the US so that an export license application can be prepared. Export licenses take 4-6 weeks for approval, so please plan in advance.

Also note that the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) controls certain military-related toxins and pathogens at Category XIV of the US Munitions List (USML). The ITAR, which is generally implicated for DoD-funded activity, treats as an USML-controlled defense article any "biological agent or biologically derived substance specifically developed or modified to increase its capability to produce casualties in humans or livestock or to degrade equipment or damage crops." These ITAR controlled biological materials will also require an export license when shipped internationally.  Similarly, foreign nationals may not access ITAR-controlled biological materials or their unpublished technical data in the US without an ITAR license.

In the unlikely event that you need access to an ITAR controlled biological material or its technical data at Stanford, you must first contact Stanford's Export Control Office as required by the RPH Chapter: Export Control before receipt.   The Export Control Office will review the proposed receipt to ensure export compliance and consistency with Stanford's Openness in Research and Nondiscrimination in Research Agreement policies.



African horse sickness virus

African swine fever virus 

Andean potato latent virus (Potato Andean latent tymovirus)

Andes virus

Avian Influenza identified as having high pathogenicity *







Bacillus anthracis

Blue Tongue virus

Brucella abortus

Brucella melitensis

Brucella suis

Burkholderia mallei (Pseudomonas mallei)

Burkholderia pseudomallei



Botulinum toxins




Chapare virus

Chikungunya virus

Chlamydophilia psittaci (Chlamydia psittaci)

Choclo virus

Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies sepedonicus (Corynebacterium sepedonicum)

Clostridium Argentinense, botulinum neurotoxin producing strains (Clostricium botulinum Type G)

Clostridium baratii, botulinum neurotoxin producing strains

Clostridium botulinum

Clostridium butyricum

Clostridium perfringens (epsilon toxin producing type)

Coccidioides immitis

Coccidioides posadasii

Cochliobolus miyabeanus (Helminthosporium oryzae)

Colletotrichum kahawae (Colleototrichum coffeanum var. virulans)

Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever virus

Coxiella burnetii



Cholera toxin

Clostridium perfringens toxin



Dengue fever virus 

Dobrava-Belgrade virus



Diacetoxyscirpenol toxin



Eastern equine encephalitis virus

Ebola virus



Foot and Mouth Disease virus

Francisella tularensis



Goat Pox virus

Guanarito virus



Hantaan virus

Hendra virus



HT-2 toxin



none listed


Japanese Encephalitis virus

Junin virus 



Kyasanur Forest virus


Laguna Negra virus

Lassa fever virus

Louping Ill virus

Lujo virus

Lumpy Skin Disease virus

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

Lyssa virus



Machupo virus

Magnaporthea grisea (Pyricularia oryzae)

Marburg virus

Microcyclus ulei (Dothidella ulei)

Monkeypox virus

Murray Valley encephalitis virus

Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumonaie (strain F38)

Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony (contagious bovine pleuroneumonia)



Microcystin (Cyanginosin)

Modeccin toxin



Newcastle disease virus

Nipah virus


Omsk haemorrhagic fefer virus

Oropouche Virus



Peronosclerospora philippinensis (Peronosclerospora sacchari)

Peste des Petitis Ruminants virus

Phoma glycinicola (Pyrenochaeta glycines)

Porcine enterovirus type 9 (swine vesicular disease virus)

Porcine herpes virus (Aujeszky's disease)

Potato spindle tuber viroid

Powassan virus

Puccinia Graminis (Puccinia graminis f. sp. Tritici)

Puccinia striiformis (Puccinia glumarum)


none listed


Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3, biovar 2

Rathayibacter toxicus

Reconstructed replication competent forms of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus containing any portion of the coding regions of all eight gene segment

Rickettsia prowazekii

Rift Valley fever virus

Rinderpest virus

Rocio virus






Sabia virus

Salmonella typhi

SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV)

Sclerophthora rayssiae var.zeae

Seoul virus

Sheep Pox virus

Shigella dysenteriae

Sin Nombre virus

St. Louis encephalitis

Swine Fever virus (Hog cholera virus)

Synchytrium endobioticum




Shiga toxin

Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of serogroups 026, 045, 0103, 0104, 0111, 0121, 0145, 0157, and other shiga toxin producing serogoups (EGEC or VTEC)

Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins, hemolysin alpha toxin, and toxic shock syndrome toxin (Staphylococcus enterotoxin F)



Teschen Disease virus

Thecaphora solani

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (Far Eastern Subtype)

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (Siberian Subtype)

Tilletia indica



T-2 toxin




none listed


Variola virus

Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus

Vesicular stomatitis virus

Vibrio cholerae



Verotoxin and other Shiga-like ribosome inactivating proteins

Viscum Album Lectin 1 (Viscumin)

Volkensin toxin


W, X, Y, Z

Western Equine Encephalitis virus

Xanthmonas alibilineans

Xanthmonas axonopodis pv. Citri (Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri)

Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae (Pseudomonas campestris pv. Oryzae)

Yellow fever virus

Yersinia pestis


*  AI viruses that have an intravenous pathogenicity index in 6-week-old chickens greater than 1.2; AI viruses that cause at least 75% mortality in 4 to 8 week old chickens infected intravenously; AI viruses of the H5 or H7 should be submitted to further testing