Items, information, software (collectively "defense articles") and technical assistance ("defense services") specially designed or adapted for military use or which "provide a critical military or intelligence advantage." Defense articles include certain research satellites other and space science instruments. 

Defense articles and defense services are identified on the ITAR's US Munitions List. ITAR-listed items that are not the tangible products of university fundamental research generally require a license for campus access and use by all Foreign Persons.