Successful Proposal Writing
The following list of articles and links will help you hone your grant-writing skills. However, they only provide general guidance on the art of grant-writing; when you are ready to actually assemble your own funding proposal, remember to consult with your local research administration staff.
What Are Funding Agencies Looking for in a Grant Proposal?
Reviewers are often faculty just like you who are very busy. A reviewer must often read 10 to 15 applications in great detail and form an opinion about each of them.
Researchers who are able to express their scientific arguments persuasively and concisely win grants and get published more often. According to Dr. Francis Collins, Director of the NIH, “So many worthwhile research ideas get put into the unfunded category in reviews because the proposals are not written clearly and don’t present the importance of the research forcefully enough.”
Here are some tips for writing an application that is clear, compelling, and easy to evaluate (and approve!):
Stick with the format
Your application has a better chance at succeeding if it is easy to read and follows the required format. Reviewers are accustomed to finding information in specific sections of the application, so you must organize your application to effortlessly guide reviewers through it. This creates an efficient evaluation process and saves reviewers from hunting for critical information.
Before you start writing the application, think about the budget and how it is related to your research plan. Remember that everything in the budget must be justified by the work you've proposed to do. Be realistic. Don't propose more work than can be reasonably done during the proposed project period.
Make no assumptions
Include enough background information to enable an intelligent reader to understand your proposed work. Although not a requirement for assignment purposes, a cover letter can help the sponsor assign your application for initial peer review.
Organize your thinking
Start with an outline following the suggested organization of the application. Write one sentence summarizing the topic sentence of each main section. Do the same for each main point in the outline.
Make the case
Capture the reviewers' attention by making the case for why the sponsor should fund your research. Tell reviewers why testing your hypothesis is worth their money, why you are the person to do it, and how your institution can give you the support you'll need to get it done.
Keep it simple
Make one point in each paragraph. This is key for readability. Keep sentences to 20 words or less. Write simple, clear sentences. Use the active, rather than passive, voice. For example, write "We will develop an experiment," not "An experiment will be developed."
Use a clear and concise writing style so that a non-expert may understand the proposed research. Often you will know much more on the topic than the reviewer, so make your points as directly as possible. Use basic English, avoiding jargon or excessive language. Spell out all acronyms on first reference. Be consistent with terms, references, and writing style.
Proposal Writing is a short course presented by the Foundation Center, which summarizes the process for preparing a funding proposal.
The Art of Grantsmanship was created by the Human Frontier Science Program and focuses on how to write a funding proposal that optimizes your chances of successfully competing for research support.
Science Writing: “Your Thoughts Are Like a String of Pearls,” by Christopher Dant, PhD.
Teaching Effective Writing Skills at an Academic Cancer Center: Reflections of an Erstwhile Journal Editor and Writer
Geared toward researchers at all career levels, 4researchers.org is a searchable multimedia collection of practical, engaging "how-to" information about conducting research.
Research Development and Grant-Writing News
Note: This subscription publication is available to Stanford users only.
Science AAAS Articles
- Searching for Funding
- Writing a Research Plan
- Giving it 110 % (Percent Effort)
- Dealing with Peer Review
- Submitting Your Best Possible R01 Application
- How Not to Kill a Grant Application Part 1: Murder Most Foul
- How Not to Kill a Grant Application Part 2: Abstract Killers
- How Not to Kill a Grant Application Part 3: So What?
- How Not to Kill a Grant Application Part 4: Lost at Sea
- How Not to Kill a Grant Application Part 5: The Facts of the Case
- How Not to Kill a Grant Application Part 6: Developing Your Research Plan
NSF Proposal Development Resources
A Guide to NSF Success — Practical advice on how to develop a fundable research proposal.
NSF Grant Reviewer Tells All — First-hand insights from the experience of an NSF grant panel review member.
NSF Upcoming Due Dates — Lists all funding programs offered by National Science Foundation, sortable by opportunity or due date.
NSF Peer Review
NSF Merit Review Process — The National Science Foundation provides an overview of their proposal review process. This publication includes a section on how to volunteer to become an NSF peer reviewer, outlining the benefits of that service to you as a new investigator.
NSF Merit Review Criteria: Review and Revision (2012) — The National Science Foundation details their standard peer review process in this informative publication.
NIH Proposal Development Resources
The NIH Grants Process Overview provides an overview of the steps required for an application to proceed from application planning and submission through award and close out. Look to the related resources on each page for special guidance from NIH experts that can help maximize your understanding of the grants process and help you submit a successful grant application.
Planning, Writing, and Submitting — The NIH Office of Extramural Research (OER) provides a wealth of information on funding opportunities; thorough guidance for applicants, from planning your application through awards management; and policies pertaining to all NIH components that conduct peer review. Applicants looking for guidance should start at OER’s Grants Process Overview.
All About Grants Podcasts — The NIH has produced a series of videos to give you an inside look at how scientists from across the country review NIH grant applications for scientific and technical merit. New and established applicants will find insights and understanding that can empower them to improve the applications and increase their chances for receiving a more positive review.
NIH Grant Cycle Tutorial — This website takes you through the NIH grant process, step by step.
All About Grants Tutorials — The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), a component of the NIH, offers insights into the NIH grants process.
Grant Application Basics — Learn the basics about NIH and what they look for in a proposal.
The NIH R01 Tool Kit — An exhaustive discussion of the grant-writing art from start to finish, put together by the online journal Science.
Strategy for NIH Funding — NIAID takes you through all the steps, from qualifying for NIH support to staying funded.
Grants Available at NIH — Lists and explains all NIH grant types.
Collaboration and Team Science - A very robust guide published in 2010 by the NIH. Although published by the NIH This Field Guide was developed to help all researchers navigate some of the rocky and murky territory associated with building a team either on their own or at the request of someone in their organization.
NIH Peer Review
Understanding your funding agency's peer review process is key to submitting a competitive application.
NIH Center for Scientific Review — This website provides in-depth information on the NIH peer review process, which serves as a standard for many agencies. Many process changes have been incorporated at NIH over the last year and this site provides a good overview.
NIH Peer Review Notes — The NIH Center for Scientific Review publishes this newsletter with up-to-date information about peer review policies, procedures, and plans for the future of peer review at the NIH.
NIH Peer Review Video — Ever wonder what goes on at peer review meetings? NIH provides this video of a mock peer review session to answer your questions. This is an excellent resource and it comes with sample applications and summary statements to help you understand the reasoning of peer reviewers.
NIH Grant Review Process YouTube Videos — The NIH Center for Scientific Review (CSR) has produced a series of videos to give you an inside look at how scientists from across the country review NIH grant applications for scientific and technical merit. New and established applicants will find insights and understanding that can empower them to improve the applications and increase their chances for receiving a more positive review.
NIH Study Section Descriptions — Understanding the available study sections and viewing the membership rosters is very helpful when selecting the appropriate institute and study section for review of your application. NIH provides investigators with the opportunity to request that their application be assigned to particular institutes and/or study sections through the cover letter that accompanies the application.
NIH Early Career/New Investigator Infomation
One of the key objectives of external funding for research is the development of the next generation of scientists. Many grant programs are directly related to this objective.
NIH Career (K) Award Kiosk — This kiosk is designed to help investigators navigate the NIH Career Award system and decide which K Award fits best.
NIH New and Early Stage Investigator Policies — This website explains the National Institutes of Health distinctions between their two categories of "Young Investigator" status and provides information on grant mechanisms designed for new and/or early stage investigators.
NIH (NIAID) New and Early Stage Investigators — This site features information for early-career stage investigators ready for an independent research grant.
NIH (NIAID) Training and Career Portal — Find information about fellowships, career awards, training, and the NIH Loan Repayment Program.
Checklist for New Investigators — This NIAID website helps insure that all proposal development steps are covered by the-first time investigator.
NIH Research Training and Research Career Development – Learn about opportunities offered by the NIH.
NIH Newsletter Articles for New Investigators — These topics are appropriate for investigators submitting to any NIH institute or center, and most are helpful to investigators in any discipline. NIAID features special articles in their weekly newsletter, NIAID Funding News, targeted to new and early-stage investigators. Recent topics include "Gearing Up as New PI," "How to Pick a Project," "Application Approach: What Are Your Choices?," "A Long Hard Look at Application Timing," and "Your Application Takes Center Stage."
Watch the informative video from a March 2010 NIH workshop designed for those making the transition from postdoctoral to independent researcher status. Topics include “How to Have a Life,” “Negotiating a Start-Up Package,” “Networking and Collaborations,” “Applying for and Getting a Grant, and “Balancing Research/Teaching/Family/Other Commitments.” Many of these video segments are applicable to the aspiring postdoc, new, and established faculty members.
Other Agency Links
DOE Grant Deadlines — The U.S. Department of Energy offers several new investigator awards in addition to their regular grants programs.
EPA Grant Deadlines — The Environmental Protection Agency provides funding through their National Center for Environmental Research.
NASA Solicitations —The National Aeronautics and Space Administration advertises funding opportunities via their online system called NSPIRES.
NEH Deadlines — The National Endowment for the Humanities lists their year-round deadlines for all NEH grants programs.
USDA Deadlines — Deadlines for all U.S. Department of Agriculture funding programs are listed.
ONR — Currently active Broad Agency Announcements and information on contracts and grants.
AFOSR — Broad Agency Announcements and other programs.
ARO — Open Broad Agency Announcements.
AHRQ Research Training & Career Development Opportunities — The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality provides a variety of career development and research opportunities to beginning investigators.